Chronology

of al-Andalus

Chronology

622 Flight or migration (hegira) of Mohammed from Mecca to Medina. Beginning of the Muslim calendar.
711 Tarik, general of the caliph’s governor in North Africa, Musa ben Nusayr, leaves Tangiers leading an army of thousands of men and lands in Gibraltar (Yabal Tarik –the Mount of Tarik).
718 Possible date of the battle of Covadonga marking the beginning of the Asturian resistance.
720 The walls and the Roman bridge of Cordoba are rebuilt.
756 Abd-al-Rahman I, last surviving Umayyad from the persecution of his family in Damascus, lands in the Iberian Peninsula and occupies Cordoba. He establishes a dynasty that would govern al-Andalus until 1031 (end of the Umayyad Caliphate)
784 Works begin in the mosque in Cordoba.
822 The successor of al-Hakam I, Abd-al-Rahman II provides a period of prosperity for al-Andalus. The mosque in Cordoba is enlarged and other mosques are built in Jaen and Seville.
844 Norman incursion in Lisbon, Seville, Cadiz and Sidonia
851 Mozarab uprising in Cordoba.
879 The muladi Umar ben Hafsun rebels against the Umayyad emirate.
929 Abd-al-Rahman III is proclaimed “Prince of the Faithful” and cuts ties with Baghdad. Beginning of Caliphate of Cordoba.
936 Building of the town of Madinat al-Zahra is started.
955 Foundation of Almería.
961 Caliphate of al-Hakam II
976 Caliphate of Hisham II
997 Campaign against Santiago de Compostela by Al-Mansur.
1009 Beginning of the decline of the Caliphate. Fitna or civil war
1031 Taifa kingdoms start to appear all over al-Andalus.
1042 Building starts on the Alcazar (fortress) of Seville.
1057-1063 Building of the Alcazaba (citadel) of Malaga.
1085 Alphonso VI seizes Toledo. The King of Seville al-Mu’tamid calls on the Almoravids for help and together, they defeat the Christians a year later at Sagrajas.
1145 Most of the cities of al-Andalus expel the Almoravids, establishing local governments. Start of the so-called “second taifas”.
1147 The Almohads land in the Peninsula.
1184 Building of the Giralda of Seville starts.
1195 The Almohad forces under Yaqub defeat Alphonso VIII of Castile’s Christian forces at Alarcos.
1198 Averroes of Córdoba dies.
1212 The allied armies of Castile, Aragon and Navarre defeat the Almohads at the battle of Las Navas de Tolosa.
1231 Ibn al-Ahmar, founder of the Nasrid dynasty, is appointed governor of Arjona, his birthplace, and shortly after, he extended his power over Jaen and Guadix.
1236 Córdoba falls to Ferdinand III of Castile. A few years later, he will take Jaen and Arjona (1246), Seville (1248) and other towns of al-Andalus.
1237 Under the direction of al-Ahmar, works begin on the Alhambra.
1482 The war of Granada begins. Boabdil dethrones his father
1487 Malaga surrenders to the Christian forces.
1489 Baeza and Almería surrender to Ferdinand and Isabella.
1491 Boabdil, the last Nasrid king, compelled to sign away his kingdom, negotiates the surrender of Granada on 25th November.
1492 On 2nd January, the Catholic Kings enter Granada.

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